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OBJECTIVE: There is dearth of literature on computed
tomography (CT) patterns of odontogenic tumours in Nigerians.
This study aims to determine and correlate the clinical findings and
CT patterns with the histopathologic types of odontogenic tumours
in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.
METHODS: A retrospective review of the clinical records, CT
reports and available images, complemented with a review of the
histopathological slides and reports of patients, diagnosed of
odontogenic tumours over a 12-year period.
RESULTS: Twenty (20) patients were selected for this study based
on the above selection criteria. The patients’ mean age was 44 ±5.2
(S.E.) years and the peak age group was the 4th decade of life (n=7,
35.0%). There was equal male to female ratio (1:1), and the maxilla
(n=8, 40.0%) was the commonest solitary clinical sites.
Ameloblastoma (n=8, 40.0%) was the commonest clinical
diagnosis. The CT findings were mostly ill-defined lesional
margins (n=16, 80.0%) and solid CT density (n=12, 60.0%). Other
CT findings were heterogeneous contrast enhancement (n=5,
25.0%), soft tissue involvement (n=11, 55.0%), bone and soft tissue
infiltration (n=16, 80.0%). The most common histopathological
diagnosis were ameloblastic carcinoma (n=6, 30.0%) and plexiform
ameloblastoma (n=4, 20.0%). There was significant association of
heterogeneous contrast enhancement and solid CT pattern/density
with histological diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma (p=0.050)
and plexiform ameloblastoma (p=0.025) respectively.
CONCLUSION: This study observed similar CT patterns of bone
and soft tissue infiltration in malignant odontogenic tumours and
some variants of ameloblastoma. This study also suggests that
heterogeneous contrast enhancement and the solid CT patterns are
predictive of histological diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma and
plexiform ameloblastoma respectively.