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OBJECTIVE: Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that may present a diagnostic challenge in low and middle-income settings. The American College of Rheumatologists (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) in 2016 developed diagnostic criteria. However, a dearth of literature exists on the clinico-pathologic pattern and the diagnostic criteria used to diagnose primary Sjögren’s syndrome in Nigeria.
METHODOLOGY: This is a single-center retrospective review of 20 cases seen at the Oral Medicine clinic that underwent an evaluation for suspected primary Sjogren’s Syndrome (pSS). We report the clinical and histopathology of the 20 cases, and evaluated these cases based on the diagnostic criteria by the ACR/EULAR.
RESULTS: The survey revealed a series of 20 cases. There were 14 females and 6 males with F: M ratio of 2.3:1. The study participants were from 18 to 78 years, with a mean age of 46.9 (± 15.9). Of all the cases reviewed, about 35% (n=7) met the ACR/EULAR criteria, and oral symptoms of dry mouth, 19(95%), was the most common symptom seen. Symptoms of persistent dry eyes and a feeling of gritty sensations in the eyes were equally common symptoms in the ocular region in 9(45%). Atypical symptoms in form of cough and sore throat resulting from dry mucosa were also reported in 15% (n=3) of cases reviewed.
CONCLUSION: Oral symptoms appear to be relatively common in the cases reviewed, while the ACR/EULAR criteria confirmed diagnosis in a third of the cases evaluated.