African Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Medicine https://ajompm.com/index.php/ajmp <p style="text-align: justify;">This current issue of the African Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Medicine (AJOMPM) consist mostly of the research work presented at the 2<sup>nd</sup> Conference of the IAOP- African held in Ghana in August 2017. The manuscripts published are in line with the journal’s aims to provide our readers with current research findings that will impact positively on the practice of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology/Medicine, Forensic Odontology, Oral Biology and Oral/Maxillofacial Radiology worldwide.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal manuscripts include recent researches on the diagnosis of orofacial cancer in younger age group, pigmented oral lesion in sero-positive HIV patients, a review of ameloblastoma in a Nigerian population, and records of lip imprint for diagnosis and forensic analysis. In addition, some interesting case reports of salivary gland tumours were presented in the journal for our readers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Prof. Ojo M.A.</strong><br>Editor-in-Chief</p> African Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Medicine en-US African Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Medicine SALIVA AS AN ACCESSIBLE BIOLOGICAL MATRIX FOR SCREENING OF PSYCHOACTIVE AND THERAPEUTIC DRUGS https://ajompm.com/index.php/ajmp/article/view/76 <p>BACKGROUND: Saliva functions are becoming increasingly uncountable based on recent technology, these functions ranges from lubricant, digestion of food, maintenance of oral hygiene, antimicrobial function, ion reservoirs, buffering capacity, diagnostic tool, hormonal role, taste perception, DNA and forensic screening. This research focuses on the use of saliva to screen for some psychoactive drugs, with the use of oral screen digital portable machine of motorists and thus enhancing highway safety.</p> <p>MATERIAL AND METHODS: Digital screening device called Oral Screen was used to screen selected participants saliva to establish those that ingested substances of abuse such as motorists. The test detects THC, cocaine, opiates, methamphetamine, and their metabolites individually in human oral fluids with high sensitivity. The device was complemented with Alco-scan for detection of alcohol.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>&nbsp;The findings revealed that significant males at 31.07% were positive for alcohol; marijuana was 17.84%, while those that combined them were 6.46% males. Those that tested positive for alcohol were highest in Abuja with 37.32%, followed by Benin at 22.75%, Ibadan at 19.07%, and the least was Enugu with 16.61%.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: The use of digital screening tool with saliva is convenient, reliable and time saving methods to enhance highway safety by identifying motorists with positive substances of abuse.</p> E Ehikhamenor H Obianwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-24 2018-07-24 2 1 & 2 35 45 PAPILLON-LEFÈVRE SYNDROME: clinical presentation and literature review https://ajompm.com/index.php/ajmp/article/view/80 <p>BACKGROUND: Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterised by a diffused palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and severe early-onset periodontitis. Although the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still unknown however, it has been linked to mutations in the cathepsin C (<em>CTSC</em>) gene. We report a case of PLS from our centre in North-western Nigeria with characteristic skin and oral lesions.</p> <p>CASE REPORT: This paper is a clinical presentation of a 12 year old male with severe periodontitis with loosening exfoliation of teeth, characteristic palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and normal full blood count and liver ultrasound. Based on medical and dental findings, a diagnosis of Papillon- Lefèvre Syndrome was made.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: An early diagnosis of the syndrome can help preserve the teeth by early institution of treatment, using a multidisciplinary approach. Thereby, sparing the patients increase risk of social, psychological, and economical stigma. Owing to the vast degree of periodontal breakdown involved at such an early age, the dentist is often the first to encounter such patients. This patient presented primarily because of oral lesions, hence dentists requires a high index of suspicion to pick this condition.</p> O A Taiwo M O Adeyemi W L Adeyemo M O Ogunlewe A L Ladeinde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-24 2018-07-24 2 1 & 2 75 80 PATTERNS OF PRESENTATION OF TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA IN PATIENTS ATTENDING THE ORAL MEDICINE CLINIC IN A NIGERIAN TERTIARY HOSPITAL https://ajompm.com/index.php/ajmp/article/view/52 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Variation exist in the clinical presentations of trigeminal neuralgia due to environmental and genetic influences, and information on the variable pattern of presentation is rare in the African population.<br><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> To determine the clinical patterns of trigeminal neuralgia among patients seen at the Oral Medicine Clinic, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife.<br><strong>METHODS:</strong> A retrospective study of all cases of trigeminal neuralgia seen in our clinic between 2008 and 2018 using International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria. The following data were collected from the patient case notes. (1) Biodata (Name, sex, age, address), (2) Presence of the criterial for diagnosis (3) Side of the face affected (4) Presence of co morbidity. (5) Treatment given and prognosis. Bivariate analysis was done using STATA 13 statistical software.<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Of the 813 patients seen in the clinic during the study period, 24 cases (15 male and 9 females) of trigeminal neuralgia were seen, representing a prevalence of 3.0%. The mean age was 52.6± 16.5years (SD), ranging from 24 years to 85 years. Subjects above the age of 50 years accounted for 14 (58%) of cases, none of the patients was less than 20 years of age. Left part of the face (14, 58.0%) were more affected while sockets of extracted teeth (n=9, 37.0%) cases had the most trigger zones. Majority (17, 70.0%) showed normal haematological findings at first presentation. Most of the patients (23, 95.0%) responded well to carbamazepine.<br><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> This study showed a higher prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia with a male predilection, frequent involvement of the left side of the face, preponderance of patients above 50 years of age and extraction sockets as the most frequent trigger zone. There was satisfactory response to treatment with carbamazepine.</p> Oyetola E O Oluwadaisi A M Adewale A A Agho E T Akinniyi T A Owotade F J ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-18 2018-07-18 2 1 & 2 40 45